A randomised trial of the effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements on the human intestinal microbiota.
Omega-3 have been found to ilicit some anticolorectal cancer (CRC) activity. Intestinal microbiota has been implicated in forms of colorectal carcinogens. Dietary omega-3 PUFAs alter intestinal microbiome compatible with antineoplastic activity. This trial investigated the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplements on the faecal microbiome in middle-aged, healthy volunteers (n=22). A randomised, open-label, cross-over trial of 8 weeks’ treatment with 4 g mixed EPA -eicosapentaenoic acid / DHA-docosahexaenoic acid in two formulations (soft-gel capsules and Smartfish drinks), separated by a 12-week ‘washout’ period. Faecal samples were collected at five time-points for microbiome analysis by 16S ribosomal RNA PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid analysis was performed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.
Both omega-3 PUFA formulations induced similar changes in RBC fatty acid content, except that drinks were associated with a larger, and more prolonged, decrease in omega-6 PUFA arachidonic acid than the capsule intervention (p=0.02). There were no significant changes in α or β diversity, or phyla composition, associated with omega-3 PUFA supplementation. However, a reversible increased abundance of several genera, including Bifidobacterium, Roseburia and Lactobacillus was observed with one or both omega-3 PUFA interventions. Microbiome changes did not correlate with RBC omega-3 PUFA incorporation or development of omega-3 PUFA-induced diarrhoea. There were no treatment order effects.
Conclusion Omega-3 PUFA supplementation induces a reversible increase in several short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, independently of the method of administration. There is no simple relationship between the intestinal microbiome and systemic omega-3 PUFA exposure.
Omega-3 PUFAs and vitamin D co-supplementation as a safe-effective therapeutic approach for core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder: case report and literature review
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal development of cognitive, social, and communicative skills. Although ASD aetiology and pathophysiology are still unclear, various nutritional factors have been investigated as potential risk factors for ASD development, including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and vitamin D deficiency. In fact, both omega-3 PUFAs and vitamin D are important for brain development and function.
Case report: Herein, we report the case of a 23-year-old young adult male with autism who was referred to our Unit due to a 12-month history of cyclic episodes of restlessness, agitation, irritability, oppositional and self-injurious behaviours. Laboratory tests documented a markedly altered omega-6/omega-3 balance, along with a vitamin D deficiency, as assessed by serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Omega-3 and vitamin D co-supplementation was therefore started, with remarkable improvements in ASD symptoms throughout a 24-month follow-up period. A brief review of the literature for interventional studies evaluating the efficacy of omega-3 or vitamin D supplementation for the treatment of ASD-related symptoms is also provided.
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first case reporting remarkable beneficial effects on ASD symptoms deriving from omega-3 and vitamin D combination therapy. This case report suggests omega-3 and vitamin D co-supplementation as a potential safe-effective therapeutic strategy to treat core symptoms of ASD. However, larger studies are needed to evaluate the real efficacy of such therapeutic approach in a broader sample of ASD patients.
Therapeutic use of carbohydrate-restricted diets in an autistic child; a case report of clinical and 18FDG PET findings
Clinical Efficacy and Biological Regulations of ω–3 PUFA-Derived Endocannabinoids in Major Depressive Disorder.
Treatments enriched with EPA increased plasma EPEA levels, which was positively associated with clinical remission. This finding may suggest that levels of plasma EPEA play a potential novel endogenous therapeutic target in MDD.